[转载]实话实说CG行业

2014年5月11日1,0370

作者Joe Harkins

 

The Unofficial Truth about The Industry实话实说CG行业

After responding to probably a hundred e-mails, being a guest speaker at various schools, and having taught at Gnomon, Academy of Art San Francisco, Expression Center for New Media, and SIGGRAPH, I’ve come to realize that all students seek the same information: they want the truth about the value of their education. They want an honest and experienced person to critique their work. But most of all, more than anything else, they want a job, and they want to know how to get it.

作为一个在各个学校演讲的演讲者,一个在Gnomon,旧金山艺术学院新媒体传达中心和SIGGRAPH任教的老师,我会收到无数电子邮件。在回复了上百封邮件后,我逐渐认识到几乎所有的学生都关心这样一个信息:他们想知道他们所受的教育的真正价值有多少。他们需要一个真正诚恳的,有经验的人来评判他们的作品。最重要的,他们想知道如何才能获得一份工作。

After a certain number of e-mails I realized that I had compiled a FAQ of sorts. From that point on I simply responded to any e-mails with the relevant answers from my FAQ, rather than write the same advice over and over again. Many people sent pages of e-mails with life changing concerns and problems. Issues that I don’t feel qualified to respond to – like whether or not they should go to college, whether to sign that big loan, whether to pursue a dream or just give up.

回复了多封电邮后我发现我一直面对着很多相同的提问,于是我只选择部分有共同疑问的信件做回答,而不是一封封的回信。很多人写信来告诉我他们人生的转折点和遇到的困惑。这些问题我觉得自己还没有能力去回答好,类似我是否应该去学校,是否应该办一个助学贷款,是追逐梦想还是放弃。

After my last stint teaching at Gnomon, I sat down to write something I could give my students. Something they could walk away with, answering their questions, removing their concern, and hopefully giving them some hope and clear their mind of doubt. Unfortunately, I never found the time…until now. And since I am currently too busy with production to teach, I have no direct students. But there are hundreds of you who are, and so this one’s for you…

Some of this will seem like information you’ve heard before, like common sense, like something someone should have sat down and told you. Maybe that’s the case, and maybe this is just affirmation of what you already know, but either way, I think you should read this.

在结束了上一次在Gnomon的简短教学以后,我就决定坐下来给我的学生们写点东西,回答他们的疑惑,打消他们的顾虑,指导他们的学习和选择,希望能给他们些指引。可惜我一直没有时间来做。现在终于有机会了!由于我一直很忙,所以我没有一个真正的亲授学生,但是这篇文章就是写给你们——众多在读这篇文章的人的。有些问题你们可能已经听过很多,而这次仅仅是再一次的加强。

I realize that you might not be a full-time student, and you might be working in the industry. In fact, some of you I know from work, and you’re just here to brush up or learn a new skill. Your continued education is evidence of the dedication you have, and that’s such a great thing to have! I admire those who want more when they already have what they need.

我想你也许不是一个“全职”学生,你可能已经进入行业在工作了。我知道你们有些人是工作以后再回来充电的。这说明你很努力,这难能可贵!我很欣赏求知若渴的人!

I believe that no matter what and where you choose to learn, be it at a public institute, a private school, or even in front of your computer at home, you should feel comfortable with your decision. You should feel like you’re learning and that you’ve been given the tools you need to succeed in this extremely tough industry.

无论你在哪里想学什么,无论是公立学校,私立学校甚至在家对着电脑自学,你一定要确信这是你自己的选择,你要知道你将要学习掌握的这些是能让你在这个竞争极其激烈的行业里成功的钥匙!

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Should you go to college and get a degree?

Whether or not you should go to college is not the question. Once you graduate, no-one cares anymore. They don’t need to hear about your education and how well you did in school. It’s no longer “What’s your major?” that you’ll get asked everyday, but “What do you do for a living?”

我应该去学校拿一个学位吗?

是否上学拿学位并不是关键。毕业了以后没有人会在意你这个了。他们不想知道你在哪里毕业,学校里成绩多牛。他们不会问你“你主修什么?”他们更可能会说: “你会做什么?”

To be completely honest, this industry is not skilled enough to concern itself with education as much as doctors or lawyers, or even business people. Yes, there are computer programming geniuses with advanced degrees from Ivy League schools working in our industry, and they are a valuable component to what we do, but they are the minority. Many more of us are regular people, who have found something we enjoy, have some natural talent, and have worked really hard to be good at something we are passionate about.

说实话,这个行业还没有专业,高端到去顾及每个从业人员的学历,这不同于医生和律师,甚至是商业行业。的确,这个行业里有一些从常春藤名校毕业的电脑程序天才,他们对于我们这些人来说,是价值连城的。但是那些毕竟是极少数。更多的是普通人,他们做着自己喜欢的事情,他们有天赋并且很努力去做着他们热爱的事情。

Do you need to go to college to get a job in this industry? No, but it doesn’t hurt your chances to have a degree, and it won’t be frowned upon if you don’t.

你是否一定需要一个大学学历才能在行业里生存?并非如此,但并不是说去上学没有意义,只是说如果你没有学历,也无需郁闷。

Do employers require a degree to get a job?

Yes, some of the larger studios do require a degree for some of their more advanced TD, software engineering, and infrastructure related jobs.

公司是否要求员工的学历?

是的,有些大的工作室对他们的高级TD,软件工程师等职位,有学历上的要求。

What about non technical jobs, do those require a degree?

No. While some schools hold a certain amount of clout with many large studios and their degrees are in fact well respected, like Ringling or Cal Arts for example, artistic jobs do not require a degree.

非技术性职位呢,也需要一定的学历吗?

不需要,虽然一些学校的毕业生在一些很大的工作室中数量可观,而且他们的学历也很受人尊重,但是艺术性工作并不要求学历。

Do I need to be artistic?

Yes. Hands down it all comes down to your natural, raw, artistic talent, your eye for detail, your ability to take criticism for your own work, and your ability to critique others.

我需要有艺术素养吗?

毫无疑问,所有能力都需要依赖于你天生的艺术天赋,你观察细节的眼力,你评价他人和自己作品的能力。

What if I’m technical though, do I still need to be artistic?

At the end of the day, the answer is yes. While it’s acceptable to not have any artistic talent and be completely scientific in many of the job functions, if you truly want to excel in Computer Graphics, you need at least basic artistic abilities to get by. It will only make you a stronger technical candidate.

如果我走技术路线,我需要有艺术素养么?

答案当然是YES,虽然很多纯技术性工种并不要求你艺术方面的能力,但是如果你想在CG方面变的更优秀,你仍然需要具备基本的艺术素质。这会让你成为一个很有竞争力的的技术工作者。

So should I go to college or not?

Are you talented enough to get a job without it? Are you completely sure about your artistic ability and what you want to do? Do you need more time to work on your portfolio and demo reel? Do you have the discipline and determination to get a job with your current abilities? Keep asking yourself questions, and eventually you’ll figure it out. Some people need college, while others don’t.

那么我到底应不应该去大学读书呢?

你是不是有才华到不读书就可以找到工作?你是否很确定你的能力,知道你想做什么?你是否需要更多的时间去做好你的简历和Demo reel?你是否有足够的毅力和决心用自己当前的能力去得到一份工作?不断问你自己这些问题,你就会知道答案。有些人需要去好好的读书,而有些人不需要。

What if I get a degree in something else?

That’s fine if you want to have something to “fall back” on, so to speak. Conservative people recommend this option to avoid pigeonholing yourself. I personally think that you should get a degree in whatever it is you want to do as a career. You can minor in something else, like business, while still majoring in art or computer science, for example. Either way, it’s not a bad thing, but it does raise a question as to how determined are you to make it in this industry if you’re already making a backup plan?

我有一个和CG毫不相干的学历怎么办?

这也不赖,至少你有一个后路可以做别的。保守派建议这种方式,以免让自己在一棵树上吊死。我个人觉得你需要选择一个你真正将要投身的行业,然后拿一个学位。你可以主修艺术或者计算机,然后辅修别的科目比如商业。学的多并不是一个坏事。但是有一个问题,既然你都做好了改行的准备,那么你究竟又多少的决心投身到CG行业呢?(太经典了)

 

 

How do I know if I am getting what I need out of school or not?

“I feel lost…” I’ve heard that one a lot. I honestly want to tell you to consider doing something else with your life if you feel lost and are already taking classes for your major. If you’re just wondering whether or not you’re getting what you need from school, then you should probably ask yourself what it is you expect. You’re only going to get out of it what you put in.

当我毕业时,我如何知道自己已经达到要求了呢?

“我很迷茫”我经常听到这样的话。我想说当你毕业的时候觉得你自己很迷茫,最好考虑去做点别的事情。如果你不知道你是否学到你想要的东西时,最好问问自己你到底要的是什么。有的时候跳出来想想会更好。

Should I focus on art or science?

That’s for you to decide. Unless you’re absolutely sure you want a technical job that requires a degree, the B.A. vs B.S. is not worth arguing over. You need to pick something that fits your goals, but remember that it’s probably irrelevant later on anyways.

我应该把精力放在那方面呢?艺术还是技术?

这是你自己的选择,除非你打定注意,这样的艺术技术的争论没有丝毫意义。你需要为了目标奋斗,但也要知道有可能这些奋斗走错了方向。

My school seems more interested in my money, is this normal?

Many schools are cashing in on students desire to learn computer graphics. They are almost all the same as far as what you end up with on paper. As far as actual teaching quality, instructor experience, and overall reputation, that all depends on your school. It’s without argument that the most experienced instructors are in LA, SF, and surrounding areas, because this is a central place for our industry. But, each school is different, and it’s hard to say.

我的学校好象更象在赚我们的钱,这正常吗?

很多学校是利用学生学习CG的热情来创汇的。费用基本也差不多,取决于你毕业的学位。不同的学校,教学质量,教师经验,学校名气都不同。毫无疑问LA 和SF和周边地区有着最富经验的教师,因为这里是行业的中心!不同学校收费不一样,这不太好说。

If you feel like your school is just seeking a profit, then your hunch is right, it is. The difference will be in the graduating students. You should talk to recent grads to find out the truth. Look at where grads are working, not so called “job placement” numbers that the school puts out. Just remember, it’s your responsibility to teach yourself and get a job, not anyone else, no matter how much money you spend on school or how much they promise to help after graduation.

如果你觉得你的学校只是在赚钱,那么恭喜你答对了,他们就是在赚钱。不同之处在于他们的毕业生。你应该去向刚毕业的学生们那里了解一些情况,看看他们都在哪里工作,而不要去看学校所谓的“就业率”。记住一点:学习和找工作是你自己的事情,只有你对你自己负责,而不是别人。无论你花了多少钱读书,或者学校给你什么样的承诺,都不重要。

What software should I learn?

First and foremost, forget about the software for a minute. If you are interested in the technical side of things, then you are going to need a strong background in math and science. You’ll also need programming experience.

我该学什么软件好呢?

首先,也是最重要的,先忘记软件这个东西吧!如果你对技术性的东西有兴趣,那么你需要一个很强悍的数学和科学基础。当然还要会编程!

If you’re mainly an artist then you need to focus on traditional skills such as drawing, painting, and sculpting, among other things. Work on your 2D skills before trying your hand at 3D.

如果你走艺术路线,那么你需要在传统技法上下工夫,比如速写,色彩,雕塑等。先打好扎实的2D基础,再来玩3D。

The software is only a tool.

软件仅仅是一个工具而已~

To answer the question though, the software most commonly used for 3D in the industry is Maya. For 2D, PhotoShop is still the standard application to know. For compositing you’re best bet is to learn Shake and/or Combustion, possibly After Effects. For rendering, Renderman and Mental Ray have the strongest markets. For motion capture, MotionBuilder is the most widely used. Houdini is sometimes popular with FX artists, but Maya also has a stronghold in that market, especially with Maya Fluids.

回到问题上来,行业里用到最多的3D软件是Maya,2D方面,PhotoShop仍然是一个必会项目。说到合成,你学好Shake 或者Combustion不会有错,会AfterEffect更好。渲染部分,Renderman和Mental Ray所占比例最大。动作捕捉方面MotionBuilder用的最多。特效家们有的时候爱用Houdini,不过Maya仍然是用的最多的,尤其是它的流体。

Many larger studios have proprietary packages that are very unique to their pipeline. You will not be expected to know all of these packages, but a basic understanding of each will help you out in the longrun. The more you know, the better you’ll understand everything.

许多大的工作室拥有专门的软件包,是专门针对他们的流程而开发的独特的软件。你不可能掌握这些所有的软件,但是对这些软件有一个基础的了解会对你有好处。你了解的越多,那么你就越容易理解所有的事情。

It can matter what software you learn, because they are complicated packages that require training and time to understand. The less experience you have with the most commonly used software, the less valuable you will be. This isn’t about what software package is better, that is a pointless argument. It’s about what the industry is using the most, and that’s what makes knowing certain packages more valuable than others.

当然学什么软件还是很重要的,因为这些复杂庞大的软件学习起来也要花费大量的时间和精力。对一个流行的软件你懂的越少,那么你就越不值钱。这并不是说哪个软件更好,这争论毫无意义。关键的是行业中用的最多的软件是什么,这才是决定学什么软件更有价值的关键!!

I am about to graduate, what should I do?

There are a few steps to preparing for graduation and entering this industry. They are pretty simple.

* Start looking at job openings and preparing your resume

* Start putting together a portfolio and/or demo reel

* Start trying to make professional contacts who can review your work

我马上要毕业了,我该做什么呢?

对于即将毕业进入行业的学生,这里有些简单的准备工作需要做:

1 开始关注招聘季的信息,准备好你的简历

2 着手制作你的作品展示或者一个demo

3 尝试去正式接触和联系那些看过你作品的公司。

What should I have when I graduate?

The most important thing you need in hand is a demo reel or portfolio with your work on it. You need a resume obviously, but that is far less important than the demo reel. Almost everyone gets reviewed solely on their demo reel, unless it’s strictly infrastructure or engineering, you’re going to need that demo reel. If you don’t have that when you graduate then you are not prepared for the battle in front of you.

毕业的时候,我应该具备些什么呢?

最重要的东西就是你手中的demo或者是一个作品展示。当然你还需要一个简历,但是那相对是次要的东西。几乎所有的人的demo都会被单独看过,如果你是做基础性技术工作或者是工程师,则不在此列。如果你毕业的时候没有这些东西,那么你绝对没有作好竞争的准备。

I graduated, now what?

Now is when you flood the market. You are new, you are unknown, and you need a job. Flood is the key word here. Send out as many reels and resumes as you can. Take time and make cover letters for each one, and make them specific to that company. Don’t write a generic cover letter, it will get you tossed in the trash with the others. Don’t overdo it either, simple and to the point. Cover letter, resume, and demo reel, 3 things, that’s it.

我已经毕业了,接下来该怎么做?

毕业了,你就进入了这个行业的大海开始“漂”的生活。你是新人,没人认识你,但是你需要一份工作。“漂”这个词很重要。尽可能多的发送你的reel和简历。花时间给每个公司写求职信,而且要保证这些信是针对这个公司而不是泛泛而写。绝对不要写那种很没个性的信,那样的很快就会被扔进垃圾箱。但是也别做的太过火,简单到位就是最好的。求职信,简历,Demo reel这3样东西都准备好了,就够了。

As far as demo reels go, here are my rules:

* 2 minutes or less, anything more is too much without experience

* Tbe best work goes first, never repeat anything, and don’t put anything less than your best on the reel just to fill time.

* Forget the music; it’s on mute and being watched in fast forward, sorry.

* Name, phone and email all over the place, don’t forget contact info.

关于demo reel,我个人有以下几点法则:

* 不要超过2分钟,任何过多的内容都是没有经验的表现。

* 最好的作品放在第一个,绝对不要重复表现什么内容,更不要把一些不能体现你最佳水平的东西放进去充数。

* 忘记配乐吧,你的reel基本都是关掉声音而且是被快进看完的。很遗憾。

* 名字,电话和电子邮件要显醒目,千万别忘记这些联系方式。

What to put on it?

Only your best work. As someone who has been directly in charge of hiring and having seen quite a bit of reels, I can say that anything less than your best will cost you the job – literally. If you don’t think it’s great, no-one else will.

reel里该放些什么?

当然只放你最牛B的作品!如果那些不是你最好的作品,我很难保证那些看过无数reel的招聘官会录用你。如果你自己都不觉得作品好,那么绝对不会有其他人会。

You should really get as much feedback from people as you can before you cut your demo reel. You need to find out what your best work really is. It could be that one piece that is really great that gets you the job, but if you throw in five others that are terrible, it’s going to cause people to question your ability.

你在剪辑reel之前,需要尽可能多的询问别人的意见。你需要知道到底什么才是你最好的作品。有可能一个很棒的作品帮你找到了工作,但是如果你放进去另外五个很差劲的作品,别人会怀疑你的能力了。

Regarding specifics – tailor your reel to the job that you would like. If you’re a modeler, show models. If you want to animate, show animations. Don’t try to show more than one or two skillsets, even if you want to do everything. You cannot possibly be good at everything, and your weakest areas are going to shine through, not your strongest. Be aware that all of your work shown is being judged, not just what you say you want to do. Not fair? Then don’t put it on your reel!

关于专一性——为你想从事的工种来量身定做reel。如果你是模型师,那么秀你的模型。如果你想做动画,把他们放进你的reel。即便你想什么都做,也千万别在reel里展现多于2个的技能。你不可能对所有东西都了如指掌,暴露的最明显的是你的弱点而不是你的强项。要记住reel中所有的东西都是要被评审的,并不是你想如何就如何。不够牛B?那么就别放进你的reel!

How much is your demo reel worth?

Technically, it’s priceless. A foot in the door in this industry is tough to get, and you are up against many willing and talented people who want that opportunity as bad if not worse than you do. So, it’s priceless. If you spend one week hacking together a reel, it’s obvious. All the talent in the world won’t make up for rushed work, laziness, or procrastination. Be proactive, and don’t doubt it for a second – there is competition.

你的demo reel究竟值几个钱?

从某种程度上说,它是无价的!进入行业的机会是十分难得到的,你会和许多极富天赋的人来竞争一个工作。如果你用一个星期的时间作出一个reel,很显然它会很有价值!世界上所有的天才艺术家绝对不会对自己的作品草草了事,不会偷懒和拖拖拉拉。作好心理准备吧,别迟疑,这里充满了竞争。

All that matters is the reel. The demo reel is your only friend, it is your only way in the door, and it should get the majority of your attention.

reel决定了所有的事情。它是你唯一靠的住的伙伴,也是你进入行业唯一的敲门砖。你应该在它身上花点心血!

That’s about half the questions. Usually most people want to know about school and the demo reel, and then they get to the ones I don’t really want to answer, like how much money can they make?

到这里回答了问题的一半。通常大部分人都回关心学校和reel的问题,接下来他们会问到我最不愿意回答的问题:他们可以拿到什么样的工资?

Yes, I know, you have a student loan to payback, and yes, I know you’re probably scraping by on nothing or mooching off of someone else. Yes, I know, you really need a job.

是的,我知道你们需要还助学贷款,我也知道可能你们生活艰难,你们需要一份工作。

So, how much money can you make?

It depends on the market that you’re in. Let’s take LA for example. An entry level artist at a 3D job might work for anywhere between $12 and $20 an hour, depending on the company, the work required, and your negotiating skills. That could be a 3D tracker, modeler, character TD, animator, lighter, or even a compositor. At this point, it’s almost all the same; you’re looking at equal pay across the board for most entry level jobs.

那么究竟你们可以挣到多少钱呢?

这取决于你在哪里做。以洛杉矶为例,一个初级3D工作者的价格可能在每小时12到20美圆,取决于公司,工作要求还有你的谈判技术。职位可能是跟踪师,模型师,角色TD,动画师,灯光师或者是合成师。现在这个级别,工资几乎都差不多。你需要一个新手的均价。

What if I don’t get a job right away?

That’s normal! You’re going to have to keep trying, and be persistent. Keep applying, keep making phone calls, browsing job ads, and keep refining your work and your reel. Cut a new version of your reel every week if you have to, just keep making it better and better until you get that first job. The first job is so important and so hard to get, you have to really want it.

如果我暂时还没找工作呢?

这很正常!你要继续不断尝试,一定要坚持。要不断的应聘,不断打电话,浏览招聘广告,不断的完善你的作品和你的reel。如果需要的话,每周都剪辑一个新的reel版本,不断的完善它直到你找到第一份工作。第一份工作是极其重要而且难以获得的,你需要破釜沉舟。

How long does it take to hear back once you’ve applied?

Unless they’re interested, you won’t hear anything. If they are, usually a couple of weeks at most unless there’s an enormous amount of candidates or someone else fell through. Calling HR a week after is acceptable, but don’t call everyday.

应聘以后多长时间可以得到回复?

除非他们对你感兴趣,否则你不会得到任何的消息。如果他们有意,通常最多几周就可以回复你,除非有太多的应征者或者有些别的什么事耽误了。通过后一周给人力资源部门打电话,但是别每天都打~

It’s been a really long time, should I send in another reel?

Call them first, ask them what the status is of the position. Ask if you can reapply. If they say yes, then go for it! If not, then don’t waste the postage.

已经等了很长时间了,我是否应该另寻其他的公司?

给他们打电话问问现在进展如何了,问问是否可以再次申请。如果他们说可以,那么就去做。如果答案是否,那么别再浪费邮资了。

I got an interview…so what do I say?

Just be yourself, take extra reels and resumes and be on time and prepared. Most importantly, be honest; don’t lie about what you can do, because that won’t get you the job. Don’t dress up, but at least look presentable. Be confident, they’re interested in you; try to sound interested in them.

我有面试的机会拉,但是我该说什么呢?

做你自己!带上内容更多的reel和简历作好准备,准时去面试。最重要的是要诚实,别夸大你的能力,那不会有什么帮助。别过分打扮,但是至少要得体。你要保持自信,他们对你有兴趣,你也要表现的对他们也很感兴趣。

What should I ask for as far as money goes?

Ask them what the job pays when they ask you how much you want. Ask them what they feel is fair. If you feel it is just too low, then ask for 5-10% more, but be careful with your approach. The ball is totally in their court, not yours. If this is your first job take what you can get, ask for more, hope for more, but take what you can get.

关于薪酬我该怎么问呢?

当他们问你你想要什么样的工资时,你就问他们这个工作的价格。问他们多少他们认为合适。如果你觉得价钱太低,那么你可以多要5-10%,但是一定要谨慎,毕竟这是他们的地盘不是你的。如果这是你的第一份工作,把所有的东西都展现出来,可以要求和希望的多一点,但是一定要先展现自己的实力。

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